Fuzzy entropy for Feature optimization In Motor Imagery based Brain Computer Interface
In non-invasive Motor Imagery (MI) based
Brain Computer Interface, variation due to MI has spread not
only in time domain but also in frequency domain. Even
channels are also occupied by this spread. Thus number of
features belonging to all these variations is responsible for
classifying the underlying task. This paper works on feature
optimization using fuzzy entropy so as to avoid under as well
over fitting of classifier. Time-Frequency correlation of the
signal is obtained using wavelet transform. Second and third
order statistical features are extracted from wavelet bands.
SVM and KNN with kernel variations are used for
classification. Outcome of this experimenting leads to accuracy
of 93.7% for optimized features using fuzzy entropy compared
to less than 90% for features without optimization.
M. Vaughan, “Brain–computer interfaces for communication and
control,” Clin. Neurophysiol., vol. 113, no. 6, pp. 767–791, Jun. 2002.
 Y. Zhang, G. Zhou, J. Jin, X. Wang, and A. Cichocki, “SSVEP
recognition using common feature analysis in brain-computer
interface,” J. Neurosci. Methods, vol. 244, pp. 8–15, 2015.
 G. Prasad, P. Herman, D. Coyle, S. McDonough, and J. Crosbie,
“Applying a brain-computer interface to support motor imagery
practice in people with stroke for upper limb recovery: A feasibility
study,” J. Neuroeng. Rehabil., vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 1–17, 2010.
 S. G. Mason and G. E. Birch, “A general framework for brain -
Computer interface design,” IEEE Trans. Neural Syst. Rehabil. Eng.,
vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 70–85, 2003.
 P. Speller and M. J. Alhaddad, “Common Average Reference ( CAR )
Improves Common Average Reference ( CAR ) Improves P300
Speller,” Int. J. Eng. Technol. Vol., vol. 2, no. March, 2012.
 T. Wang and B. He, “An efficient rhythmic component expression and
weighting synthesis strategy for classifying motor imagery EEG in a
brain-computer interface,” J. Neural Eng., vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 1–7,
 C. E. Tenke and J. Kayser, “Surface Laplacians ( SL ) and phase
properties of EEG rhythms : Simulated generators in a volumeconduction
model,” Int. J. Psychophysiol., vol. 97, no. 3, pp. 285–
 B. Xu and A. Song, “Pattern recognition of motor imagery EEG using
wavelet transform,” J. Biomed. Sci. Eng., vol. 1, no. May, p. 64,
 M. E. Elhalawani and A. S. Tolba, “Brain – Computer Interaction
( BCI ) Using a Fast Algorithm for Empirical Mode Decomposition
( EMD ) and a Specialized Hardware,” Int. J. Inf. Sci. Intell. Syst.,
vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 169–178, 2014.
 S. Pittner and S. V. Kamarthi, “Feature extraction from wavelet
coefficients for pattern recognition tasks,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal.
Mach. Intell., vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 83–88, 1999.
 P. Luukka, “Expert Systems with Applications Feature selection using
fuzzy entropy measures with similarity classifier,” Expert Syst. Appl.,
vol. 38, no. 4, pp. 4600–4607, 2011.
 P. Herman, G. Prasad, S. Member, T. M. Mcginnity, and D. Coyle,
“Comparative Analysis of Spectral Approaches to Feature Extraction
for EEG-Based Motor Imagery Classification,” vol. 16, no. 4, pp.
 R. Chai et al., “Brain – Computer Interface Classifier for Wheelchair
Commands Using Neural Network With Fuzzy Particle Swarm
Optimization,” IEEE J. Biomed. Heal. INFORMATICS, vol. 18, no.
5, pp. 1614–1624, 2014.
 Y. Kutlu and D. Kuntalp, “Feature extraction for ECG heartbeats
using higher order statistics of WPD coefficients,” Comput. Methods
Programs Biomed., vol. 105, no. 3, pp. 257–267, 2011.
 D. Li, W. Pedrycz, and N. J. Pizzi, “Fuzzy wavelet packet based
feature extraction method and its application to biomedical signal
classification,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng., vol. 52, no. 6, pp. 1132–
 B. Blankertz et al., “Classifying Single Trial EEG : Towards Brain
Computer Interfacing,” Adv. Neural Inf. Proc. Syst. 14 (NIPS 01), no.
c, pp. 96–98, 2002.
 K. V. Bulusu and M. W. Plesniak, “Shannon entropy-based wavelet
transform method for autonomous coherent structure identification in
fluid flow field data,” Entropy, vol. 17, no. 10, pp. 6617–6642, 2015.
To ensure uniformity of treatment among all contributors, other forms may not be substituted for this form, nor may any wording of the form be changed. This form is intended for original material submitted to AJCT and must accompany any such material in order to be published by AJCT. Please read the form carefully.
The undersigned hereby assigns to the Asian Journal of Convergence in Technology Issues ("AJCT") all rights under copyright that may exist in and to the above Work, any revised or expanded derivative works submitted to AJCT by the undersigned based on the Work, and any associated written, audio and/or visual presentations or other enhancements accompanying the Work. The undersigned hereby warrants that the Work is original and that he/she is the author of the Work; to the extent the Work incorporates text passages, figures, data or other material from the works of others, the undersigned has obtained any necessary permission. See Retained Rights, below.
AJCT distributes its technical publications throughout the world and wants to ensure that the material submitted to its publications is properly available to the readership of those publications. Authors must ensure that The Work is their own and is original. It is the responsibility of the authors, not AJCT, to determine whether disclosure of their material requires the prior consent of other parties and, if so, to obtain it.
RETAINED RIGHTS/TERMS AND CONDITIONS
1. Authors/employers retain all proprietary rights in any process, procedure, or article of manufacture described in the Work.
2. Authors/employers may reproduce or authorize others to reproduce The Work and for the author's personal use or for company or organizational use, provided that the source and any AJCT copyright notice are indicated, the copies are not used in any way that implies AJCT endorsement of a product or service of any employer, and the copies themselves are not offered for sale.
3. Authors/employers may make limited distribution of all or portions of the Work prior to publication if they inform AJCT in advance of the nature and extent of such limited distribution.
4. For all uses not covered by items 2 and 3, authors/employers must request permission from AJCT.
5. Although authors are permitted to re-use all or portions of the Work in other works, this does not include granting third-party requests for reprinting, republishing, or other types of re-use.
INFORMATION FOR AUTHORS
AJCT Copyright Ownership
It is the formal policy of AJCT to own the copyrights to all copyrightable material in its technical publications and to the individual contributions contained therein, in order to protect the interests of AJCT, its authors and their employers, and, at the same time, to facilitate the appropriate re-use of this material by others.
If you are employed and prepared the Work on a subject within the scope of your employment, the copyright in the Work belongs to your employer as a work-for-hire. In that case, AJCT assumes that when you sign this Form, you are authorized to do so by your employer and that your employer has consented to the transfer of copyright, to the representation and warranty of publication rights, and to all other terms and conditions of this Form. If such authorization and consent has not been given to you, an authorized representative of your employer should sign this Form as the Author.
AJCT requires that the consent of the first-named author and employer be sought as a condition to granting reprint or republication rights to others or for permitting use of a Work for promotion or marketing purposes.
1. The undersigned represents that he/she has the power and authority to make and execute this assignment.
2. The undersigned agrees to indemnify and hold harmless AJCT from any damage or expense that may arise in the event of a breach of any of the warranties set forth above.
3. In the event the above work is accepted and published by AJCT and consequently withdrawn by the author(s), the foregoing copyright transfer shall become null and void and all materials embodying the Work submitted to AJCT will be destroyed.
4. For jointly authored Works, all joint authors should sign, or one of the authors should sign as authorized agent
for the others.
Licenced by :