Financial Analysis Of A Hybrid Tidal Stream Energy System For Sustainable Island Electrification In The Philippines
Tidal Stream Energy (TSE) is emerging as an innovative solution to provide clean and reliable energy. TSE also has the benefit to conserve land, since the turbines are located in an offshore environment with strong tidal flows. This energy source has the opportunity to make a major difference in off grid areas, such as those found in the Philippines. As an archipelago of over 7000 islands, there are many “off grid” locations which are underserved or completely unserved with electricity.
The Philippine government has instituted a missionary electrification program designed to help the many off grid locations throughout the country. However, providing electricity for the citizens of these locations is difficult due to the high cost of produced energy in remote areas. To assist in this, the government has created a Universal Charge for Missionary Electrification (UCME), which is a subsidy from developed areas distributed to missionary areas to improve the affordability of generated power. However, the subsidy algorithm is largely based upon the OPEX of diesel plants.
 Buhali Jr., M. L., Ang, M. R. C. O., Paringit, E. C., Villanoy, C., & Abundo, M. L. S. (2012). 1st Asian Wave and Tidal Conference. In Tidal in-stream energy potential of the Philippines: An initial estimate.
 Department of Energy. Department Circular no 2019-01-001 Prescribing the Omnibus Guidelines on Enhancing Off-grid Power Development and Operations
 Department of Energy. (2020, June 30). List of Existing Power Plants as of June 2020. Department of Energy. Retrieved October 11, 2021, from https://www.doe.gov.ph/sites/default/files/pdf/electric_power/existing_power_plants_luzon_visayas_mindanao_offgrid_june_2020.pdf
 Energy Regulatory Commission (ERC). (2020, July 10). ERC Case No. 2020-11 RC In the matter of the petition for the approval of the availment from the Universal Charge for Missionary Electrification (UCME) for CY 2021 with prayer for the issuance of provisional authority. Retreived October 12 from: https://www.erc.gov.ph/ContentPage/62051
 Institute of Policy Integrity. (2021) Social Cost of Green House Gases. Calculator available at: https://policyintegrity.org/policy-impacts/supporting-the-social-cost-of-carbon
 Interagency Working Group (IWG) for the Social Cost of Green House Gases. (2021, February). United States Government. Retrieved October 9 2021 from: https://www.whitehouse.gov/wp-content/uploads/2021/02/TechnicalSupportDocument_SocialCostofCarbonMethaneNitrousOxide.pdf?source=email
 IRENA (2017a) Accelerating renewable mini-grid deployment: A study on the Philippines. Available at: http://www.irena.org/-/media/Files/IRENA/Agency/Publication/2017/Oct/IRENA_Philippines_Renewable_MiniGrids_2017.pdf
 Fernández-Jiménez, A., Cruz, D. F.-de, Ruiz-Torres, J., Perrino-Blanco, J. L., & Jimeno-Almeida, R. (2018). Harnessing the energy of tidal currents: State-of-the-art and proposal of use in EV charging points. Proceedings, 2(23), 1504. https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2231504
 Jones, B., Lee, C., Toro-Farmer, G., Boss, E., Gregg, M., & Villanoy, C. (2011). Tidally Driven Exchange in an archipelago strait: Biological and optical responses. Oceanography, 24(01), 142–155. https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2011.11
 National Electrification Administration. (2021, January). NEA 2020 Annual Report. National Electrification Administration. Retrieved October 11, 2021, from http://www.nea.gov.ph/ao39/phocadownload/Annual_Reports//NEA%202020%20Annual%20Report.pdf
 National Power Corporation. (2019). Performance Scorecard 2019. National Power Corporation. Retrieved October 12, 2021, from https://www.napocor.gov.ph/images/Performance_Evaluation_System/NPC_CY_2019_PERFORMANCE_SCORECARD.pdf
 San Antonio Municipal Plan. 2019. San Antonio Municipal Planning and Development Office.
 SEforALL. (2019, October 22). Taking the Pulse Philippines Case Study. Sustainable Energy for All. Retrieved October 11, 2021, from https://www.seforall.org/system/files/2019-12/Taking-Pulse-Philippines.pdf
 US EPA. (2017). Green House Gas Emissions Hub. Retrieved October 13, 2021 from: https://www.epa.gov/climateleadership/ghg-emission-factors-hub
 Vogel, C. R., Taira, D. T., Carmo, B. S., Assi, G. R., Willden, R. H., & Meneghini, J. R. (2019). Prospects for tidal stream energy in the UK and South America: A review of challenges and opportunities. Polytechnica, 2(1-2), 97–109. https://doi.org/10.1007/s41050-019-00017-y
To ensure uniformity of treatment among all contributors, other forms may not be substituted for this form, nor may any wording of the form be changed. This form is intended for original material submitted to AJCT and must accompany any such material in order to be published by AJCT. Please read the form carefully.
The undersigned hereby assigns to the Asian Journal of Convergence in Technology Issues ("AJCT") all rights under copyright that may exist in and to the above Work, any revised or expanded derivative works submitted to AJCT by the undersigned based on the Work, and any associated written, audio and/or visual presentations or other enhancements accompanying the Work. The undersigned hereby warrants that the Work is original and that he/she is the author of the Work; to the extent the Work incorporates text passages, figures, data or other material from the works of others, the undersigned has obtained any necessary permission. See Retained Rights, below.
AJCT distributes its technical publications throughout the world and wants to ensure that the material submitted to its publications is properly available to the readership of those publications. Authors must ensure that The Work is their own and is original. It is the responsibility of the authors, not AJCT, to determine whether disclosure of their material requires the prior consent of other parties and, if so, to obtain it.
RETAINED RIGHTS/TERMS AND CONDITIONS
1. Authors/employers retain all proprietary rights in any process, procedure, or article of manufacture described in the Work.
2. Authors/employers may reproduce or authorize others to reproduce The Work and for the author's personal use or for company or organizational use, provided that the source and any AJCT copyright notice are indicated, the copies are not used in any way that implies AJCT endorsement of a product or service of any employer, and the copies themselves are not offered for sale.
3. Authors/employers may make limited distribution of all or portions of the Work prior to publication if they inform AJCT in advance of the nature and extent of such limited distribution.
4. For all uses not covered by items 2 and 3, authors/employers must request permission from AJCT.
5. Although authors are permitted to re-use all or portions of the Work in other works, this does not include granting third-party requests for reprinting, republishing, or other types of re-use.
INFORMATION FOR AUTHORS
AJCT Copyright Ownership
It is the formal policy of AJCT to own the copyrights to all copyrightable material in its technical publications and to the individual contributions contained therein, in order to protect the interests of AJCT, its authors and their employers, and, at the same time, to facilitate the appropriate re-use of this material by others.
If you are employed and prepared the Work on a subject within the scope of your employment, the copyright in the Work belongs to your employer as a work-for-hire. In that case, AJCT assumes that when you sign this Form, you are authorized to do so by your employer and that your employer has consented to the transfer of copyright, to the representation and warranty of publication rights, and to all other terms and conditions of this Form. If such authorization and consent has not been given to you, an authorized representative of your employer should sign this Form as the Author.
AJCT requires that the consent of the first-named author and employer be sought as a condition to granting reprint or republication rights to others or for permitting use of a Work for promotion or marketing purposes.
1. The undersigned represents that he/she has the power and authority to make and execute this assignment.
2. The undersigned agrees to indemnify and hold harmless AJCT from any damage or expense that may arise in the event of a breach of any of the warranties set forth above.
3. In the event the above work is accepted and published by AJCT and consequently withdrawn by the author(s), the foregoing copyright transfer shall become null and void and all materials embodying the Work submitted to AJCT will be destroyed.
4. For jointly authored Works, all joint authors should sign, or one of the authors should sign as authorized agent
for the others.
Licenced by :